Distant quasar spectrum reveals no sign of changes in mass ratio of

first_img © 2015 Phys.org A team of space researchers working with data from the VLT in Chile has found via measuring the spectrum of a distant quasar by analyzing absorption lines in a galaxy in front of it, that there was no measurable change in the mass ratio of protons and electrons over a span of 12 billion years. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team, made up of two members from VU University in the Netherlands, and two members from Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, describe their findings and what it might mean for helping to explain dark energy. Some theories suggest that dark energy, the mysterious force that has the universe continuing to expand, might be a field that evolves over time—if so, that might mean that some of the constants we take for granted, such as gravity, the speed of light, etc., might actually evolve as well. In this new effort, the researchers sought to test that idea by looking to see if the mass of protons or electrons (both of which are considered to be fundamental constants) and the ratio that describes their mass difference, changed over the course of billions of years.To find out if that might be the case, the researchers looked to a distant quasar, one positioned behind a galaxy, relative to us. Quasars are still somewhat mysterious, described as celestial objects that emit a huge amount of energy and light—they look like stars, but some believe they actually hold black holes. The researchers found that molecular hydrogen in the galaxy absorbed some of the light from the quasar allowing them to measure the energy transitions that occurred and thus the mass ratio of protons and electrons. Since the galaxy had been previously dated to 12.4 billion years ago, the light reaching it from the quasar must be even older. Their measurements showed no deviation (with a precision of 10–6) from the current constant, suggesting that the ratio has remained constant for at least 12 billon years. And this, the researchers claim, suggests that if dark energy is evolving, it has not done so over that time span.via physicsworld.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. An X-ray image of the quasar PKS 1127-145, located about 10 billion light-years from Earth. Credit: NASA. Citation: Distant quasar spectrum reveals no sign of changes in mass ratio of proton and electron over 12 billion years (2015, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-distant-quasar-spectrum-reveals-mass.htmlcenter_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters Explore further Physical constant is constant even in strong gravitational fields More information: Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 071301 (2015) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071301last_img read more

Physicists demonstrate new violations of local realism

first_img Journal information: Scientific Reports When two objects are entangled, a measurement on one object instantly affects the state of the other, even more quickly than light could travel between them. This instantaneous action goes against our intuition that an object should be affected only by its immediate surroundings, a concept known as locality.For years, physicists struggled to definitively answer the question of whether or not entangled states truly violate local realism—that is, do they violate either locality or realism, where realism is simply the assumption that objects exist even when they’re not being observed? Although it was long suspected that at least some entangled states violate local realism due to how they seem to instantly influence each other, it wasn’t until 1991 that physicist Nicolas Gisin at the University of Geneva quantitatively demonstrated that all pure entangled states must violate local realism. This result is now known as Gisin’s theorem.In quantum mechanics, a “pure” entangled state is one that is clearly defined. However, the vast majority of entangled states are “mixed” to some degree, meaning they consist of a combination of multiple types of pure states. Although Gisin’s theorem holds only for pure states, over the years physicists have extended the theorem by showing that some other types of states can also violate local realism. In a new paper to be published in Nature Scientific Reports, Jing-Ling Chen, et al., from institutions in China and Singapore, have demonstrated that all mixed states that obey a certain steering property must violate local realism. This new family of entangled mixed states that violate local realism may lead to a better fundamental understanding of quantum correlations, as well as simplify the implementation of some quantum information protocols.”Our enhanced Gisin’s theorem is the first time that the theorem has been generalized from pure states to mixed ones, and includes the original Gisin’s theorem as a special case,” Chen, a physicist at Nankai University in China and the National University of Singapore, told Phys.org. Quantum test strengthens support for EPR steering More information: Jing-Ling Chen, et al. “Beyond Gisin’s Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.” Sci. Rep. 5, 11624; DOI: 10.1038/srep11624. To be published. Also at arXiv:1404.2675 [quant-ph] Citation: Physicists demonstrate new violations of local realism (2015, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-06-physicists-violations-local-realism.html By extending Gisin’s theorem from pure states to mixed states that obey a certain property, the results of the new paper could have applications for quantum certificate authorization protocols, like the one shown here. Credit: Chen, et al. ©2015 Nature Scientific Reports Explore further Two distinct conceptsChen explained the problem in more detail:”It has long been well-known, starting from Werner’s seminal 1989 paper ‘Quantum states with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations admitting a hidden-variable model,’ that entanglement and violation of local realism are two distinct concepts. Some entangled quantum states admit a local hidden variable model and hence do not violate local realism. An important question arises. Can we pinpoint a condition that constrains quantum states to those for which entanglement is equivalent to a violation of local realism? A possible condition is purity. Any pure entangled quantum state violates Bell’s inequalities. This is known as Gisin’s theorem. “For a more general case of mixed states, however, researchers have been concerned about a lack of such a condition. The more general condition is of great significance not only from the theoretical viewpoint of the need for a deeper understanding of quantum correlations. It is also important in experiments, and for quantum informational applications. Since a quantum system inevitably interacts with its environment, the quantum states practically always are to some degree ‘mixed.’ In this work, we address this problem and propose to use the concept of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering as a condition to bridge entanglement and violations of local realism.” Three forms of correlationsAs Chen explained, entanglement, steering, and violations of local realism can be thought of as three different forms of quantum correlations that form a hierarchical structure, with violations of local realism being the strongest form. Steering, the intermediate form, takes the correlations of entanglement a step further so that one system can control—or “steer”—the state of its entangled partner. Here, the physicists demonstrated that, if two observers are able to steer each other’s qubits into pure states by making a measurement on their own qubit that spontaneously collapses the state of the other’s qubit, then even if the qubits were originally in mixed states, they must violate local realism. “This proposed condition is more intrinsic, in the sense that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is by definition a form of quantum correlation that is intermediate between just entanglement and a much stronger one: violation of local realism,” Chen explained. “Our result provides an important step forward to solving a long-standing problem of pinpointing a physical condition that automatically implies violation of local realism by an entangled state.”Overall, the findings help establish rigorous criteria for marking the borders between these three highly related yet different concepts.”In this hierarchical structure of entanglement, steering, and violations of local realism, the former contain the latter as a subset,” Chen explained. “[Marking the borders between them] is a nontrivial problem since, in general, it is not easy to reduce a superset [entanglement] to a subset [violations of local realism] by imposing extra constraints, which is just EPR steering in our work.”As the scientists explain, the new family of states that violate local realism could provide a new resource for quantum information tasks by reducing the number of entangled particles needed to perform a task. One example is the Third Man cryptography protocol, also called “secret sharing,” in which a third party can control whether two people are allowed to secretly communicate with each other. Previous versions of this protocol required three entangled qubits, but because the fidelity of three-particle entangled states is currently still below about 90%, it is very error-prone. Using the new states, the protocol can be implemented with just two entangled qubits, which has a fidelity of more than 99% and therefore a much lower error rate.Another potential application is quantum certificate authorization, in which a person sending a confidential message through the internet to another person can ask a third party to verify that person’s identity. One way that the third party might do this is by ensuring that both the sender and the receiver can steer each other’s qubits into pure states. If they can, the entangled states must violate local realism, which ensures a secure protocol. The physicists plan to use the new family of EPR-steerable mixed states to experimentally realize these protocols in the near future. (Phys.org)—Erwin Schrödinger once famously stated that quantum entanglement is “the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics” that distinguishes it from classical theories. Now in a new paper, physicists have demonstrated a new family of entangled states that violates the principle of “local realism”—an intuitive concept that is a standard feature of classical theories, but disturbingly at odds with quantum theory. © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Step into the Churchill

first_imgThe Churchill, Jaypee Greens Golf & Spa Resort’s Cigar lounge, was named hence as a tribute to the most popular connoisseur of cigars in history, Winston Churchill. True to its name, the lounge serves its guests a select range of the finest quality of Cuban cigars. These handpicked cigars when combined with our assorted selection of fine liquor exude understated power and unassuming elegance. The menu staples range between the high-end Cubans including Montecristo Grand Edmundo, Hoyo De Monterrey Epicure No. 2, Parthagas Serie D No. 4 and the quintessential Romeo Y Julieta Short Churchill, also the more modest Cubans on the lines of Fonseca KDT Cadettes and Jose L Piedra Nacionales are included. The menu will undergo some interesting changes in October apart from some new additions Cubans will be paired with classic drinks.last_img read more

Need to utilise solar power make the most of it

first_imgDelhi Lieutenant-Governor Najeeb Jung on Friday said that we are blessed with abundant sunlight in this part of the world and solar energy is the cleanest and cheapest source of energy and one should make the most of it. Jung was speaking during the inauguration of an awareness programme on renewable energy with special emphasis on solar energy at Delhi Secretariat which was organised by the Department of Power, Delhi and Solar energy corporation of India jointly.The L-G stressed upon the need for popularising the installation and use of solar energy. He said that the growing consumption of energy has resulted in increased dependence on fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas, which are all finite resources and are available in limited quantities. He said if small initiatives are taken at the grassroot level, the solar mission can become a success.last_img read more

Poetic delight

first_imgIndia Habitat Center’s Amaltas Hall recently witnessed a unique program combining poetry and music Kavi Ek Rang Anek.  Eminent poet Lakshmi Shankar Bajpai rendered his poetry in eleven different formats –  geet, ghazal, doha, haiku, savvaiya, kshanika, mahiya, ghanakshri, triveni, muktak  and free verse.  His poetry dealt  with contemporary subjects and everyday situations relating to life with the common man. The beauty of the language and the sensitivity of the poet’s thoughts won the audience’s hearts. Bajpai spoke of the urgent need to preserve the various forms of poetry which form India’s rich cultural heritage . Some of Bajpai’s ghazals were composed and sung by ghazal singer  Shakeel Ahmed. Ahmed’s compositions were raag based and infused a vibrancy and fresh colour into the ghazals.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The audience too joined in and sang the refrain of Khoob naare ucchale gaye, Log baton mein taale gaye. Ahmed proved his virtuosity with the heart wrenchingly beautiful Poora Parivaar, ek kamre mein which brought alive the plight of the urban middle class. Mridula Satish Tandon, president of SAKSHI who organised the show said “It is an urgent need of the times to revive an interest in India’s cultural heritage and to bring it to today’s audience in a setting and form which they can easily understand and relate with.”last_img read more

Fire breaks out at Priya Cinema no casualties

first_imgKolkata: Fire broke out at the first floor of Priya Cinema Hall, one of the premier movie theatres of the city, at around 10:15 pm on Sunday. According to initial reports, the heater of a momo counter has been said to be the cause behind the mishap.Five fire engines rushed to the spot and brought the blaze under control. The owner of the theatre Arijit Dutta, along with four of his family members were rescued from the building. Rescue work is still underway. However, no casualties have been reported as of now. Mayor Sovan Chatterjee visited the spot soon after the incident and surveyed the area and the extent of damage.Preliminary investigation has revealed that the momo counter which caught fire, did not have enough fire extinguishers in supply. A forensic team is likely to visit the spot on Monday morning.last_img read more

Discussed food and spices with PM MODI Chef Sanjeev Kapoor

first_imgCliched as it may seem for chefs to love their spices, for Sanjeev Kapoor, one of the most celebrated ones on television, that was the topic of an ‘interesting’ discussion when he met Prime Minister Narendra Modi and whipped a meal up for him in Abu Dhabi.During Modi’s trip to Abu Dhabi in August, Kapoor was flown in specially to prepare a vegetarian meal for the strictly vegetarian prime minister.“I spent over an hour with the prime minister and we were only talking about food and spices and the treatment through spices. It was interesting to discuss with the PM the correct use of spices and the miracles they can do when used correctly,” Kapoor told reporters when he was capital. Chef Kapoor also eagerly shared an anecdote Modi had related to him. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“The PM told me the story of someone he knows, who had a heart issue and doctors said nothing could be done to correct it. Then he was advised to empty a capsule and fill it with freshly ground red chilli. He (Modi) said the man never had a problem after that,” said the chef, recalling his hour-long conversation with the prime minister. The right combination of spices are the trick to dish out the best food,” Kapoor said. “For me, when I’m cooking with Indian food, spices are very important as I literally have to breathe them. The use of spices makes Indian food unique,” Kapoor added. He said a combination of cumin, clove, pepper and cardamom are his favourites from his spice-box and, barring cumin, he can even use the other three in his desserts! Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“All these spices —cumin, clove, pepper and cardamom are so diverse that they can create magic by changed combinations. One can accentuate pepper, underlay it with cloves, with a hint of cumin and cardamom, it’s like a whole another world,” said Kapoor as his senses came alive while speaking of spices. It is only Indian food that can take as little as two or three spices to as many as 20 in the same dish, unlike any other cuisine in the world, Kapoor added. Through his cookery shows as well, he always tries to bring in relevance to food to suit the times, Kapoor said, adding that it doesn’t mean that he serves the same at his restaurants as is depicted on his TV shows.“For the very reason, that I know how to target my audience and I know what to sell, that all my books sell so well. One needs to know what to write so as to make it sell,” the celebrity chef added.His chain of restaurants, Yellow Chilli, would soon be hitting the Gulf markets in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and other places within the next four months, he added.last_img read more

Mamatas views find resonance in SCs Aadhaar judgement

first_imgKolkata: Welcoming the Supreme Court verdict restricting the use of Aadhaar cards, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, who is presently in Milan, said: “It is a victory of the people of this country, and we are very happy.”Later, Banerjee tweeted: “From day one we have fought for this. Not linking #Aadhaar to mobile phones, bank accounts and others is a great relief for the common people. My best wishes to all.” “From the first day, I am against linking of Aadhaar with banks and mobile phones. There is information which the state government should preserve. We are not questioning that, but linking of Aadhaar with banks and cell phones cannot be supported as there is every possibility of the information being leaked out,” she said, adding: “The Supreme Court judgment has confirmed today as true what I have been telling all these months.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeShe said Trinamool Congress MLA Mohua Moitra had filed a Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court. “We read about bank fraud every day, and money is being withdrawn from ATMs, causing great trouble to the account holders. Today’s judgment will put an end to these,” she said. “If Aadhaar is linked with mobile phones, your call and message records become public. This is uncalled for,” said the Chief Minister. “Because of this I did not link my Aadhaar with my bank account and cell phone and also asked people not to do it,” she added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedMeanwhile, party spokesperson and Rajya Sabha MP Derek O’Brien said: “Mamata Banerjee had issued an open challenge on Aadhaar. Our stance has been vindicated,” and added: “I am glad the court said we need to take a closer look at data privacy and data protection… the BJP can’t make it (India) into a police state.” In a verdict with far-reaching consequences and described as balanced, the Supreme Court Wednesday upheld the constitutional validity of ‘Aadhaar’ but limited the scope of the controversial biometric identity project by quashing some provisions that made it mandatory for bank accounts, mobile connections or school admissions. Holding there was nothing in the Aadhaar Act that violates right to privacy of an individual, a five-judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra in a 4 to 1 verdict also cleared the use of Aadhaar for welfare schemes after a long-drawn legal battle against the government’s ambitious project- the world’s largest biometric ID database. The court, however, held Aadhaar would remain mandatory for the filing of Income Tax(IT) returns and allotment of Permanent Account Number (PAN). It struck down Section 57 of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 that permitted private entities like telecom companies or other corporates to avail of the biometric Aadhaar data. Ruling that Aadhaar authentication data cannot be stored for more than six months, the court also directed the government not to give Aadhaar to illegal immigrants. Justice D Y Chandrachud gave a dissenting judgement in which he ruled the Aadhaar Act should not have been passed as Money Bill as it amounts to a fraud on the Constitution and is liable to be struck down.last_img read more

Food hacks to lower fatal heart disease risk

first_imgThe findings showed that both plant-based and seafood-based omega-3s lead to about 10 per cent lower risk of fatal heart attacks. “Our results lend support to the importance of fish and omega-3 consumption as part of a healthy diet,” said Dariush Mozaffarian from Tufts University in Boston, in the US. Fish is the major food source of omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Fatty fish such as salmon, trout, anchovies, sardines and herring contain the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, according to the US Department of Agriculture’s National Nutrient Database. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Fishes also  provide specific proteins, vitamin D, selenium and other minerals and elements. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid found in walnuts, flaxseed oil, and canola oil and some nuts and their oils, said the paper. For the study, a total of 19 studies were involved from 16 countries. 7,973 people developed a first heart attack over time, including 2,781 deaths and 7,157 nonfatal heart attacks. “This new global consortium provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand how blood biomarkers of many different fats and fatty acids relate to diverse health outcomes,” Dariush noted.last_img read more

Wage increment may not give job satisfaction

first_imgLondon: Contrary to the popular believe that people tend to be more satisfied after an increase in their wage, a new study suggests that it may be temporary and not have a persistent effect on job satisfaction. The result indicates that wage increases in small, but regular increments – rather than less frequent but higher increases that add up to an equivalent amount – are the most effective way to motivate employees in the long run.For this study, published in the Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, almost 33,500 observations were analysed; with the majority of individuals indicating a job satisfaction of seven on a zero to 10 scale. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIn line with expectations, the study found that job satisfaction was positively influenced by wage increases. However, the rise in job satisfaction after a wage increase is only temporary, as the effect almost fades out within four years.According to behavioural-economic theory, this can be explained by the fact that people do not evaluate their income in absolute terms, but rather in relation to their previous income.Furthermore, people adapt to their new wage level over time, so a higher salary becomes new reference point for future comparisons. Also, negative reactions to wage cuts were also temporary, a finding that researchers again explain with reference point adaptations and social comparisons.last_img read more

4000yrold Lost City Discovered – Gateway to Mesopotamias First Great Empire

first_imgA team of French archaeologists has discovered the remnants of an ancient lost city at Kunara, close to the Zagros mountains, in present-day Iraqi Kurdistan. At the time the city would have stood on a strategically-important position, “at the gates” of the Akkadian Empire, which is ancient Mesopotamia’s first grandiose empire, archaeologists said.According to the French team, the recently found city likely belonged to the mountainous pre-Iranian people known as the Lullubi. Dated to the latter part of the 3rd millennium BC, the so far unnamed city may have even served as the capital of the Lullubi.Territory of the Lullubi in the Mesopotamia area. Photo by Jolle CC BY-SA 4.0In ancient Mesopotamian scriptures, these mysterious people from the mountains are referred to as barbarians. A limestone artifact depicting one of the Akkadian rulers, Naram-Sin, displayed at the Louvre Museum, shows how he cherishes his victory over the Lullubi. Only a few other mentions in literature exist about these people, perhaps until now. According findings, published in the journal of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) on March 19, 2019, six excavation campaigns were carried out on the site of Kunara, between 2012 and 2018.AdChoices广告inRead invented by TeadsKing Anubanini of Lullubi, holding an axe and a bow, trampling a foe. Anubanini rock relief, circa 2300-2000 BC. Sar-I Pul, Iran. Photo by Koorosh Nozad Tehrani CC BY-SA 2.0Stone foundations of considerable size found both in the upper and lower excavation layers have been dated to circa 2,200 BC. Among the findings are also a number of clay tablets, containing small cuneiform signs; each clay retaining a rectangular form and extending about four inches on the sides. This suggests the Lullubi, just like other advanced civilizations of ancient Mesopotamia, were well versed with literacy needed for trading.Related Video: Drone captures amazing abandoned mountain top villageCNRS cuneiform specialist Philippe Clancier said in a statement that the scribes who created the tablets “had a firm grasp of Akkadian and Sumerian writing, as well as that of their Mesopotamian neighbors.” Some of the tablets were found to provide information about large repositories which would have supported the city’s extensive agricultural activities. An irrigation system was also in place to aid the growth of crops.An Akkadian inscriptionMore than that, the tablets used a so far unregistered unit of measurement, different from the Mesopotamian gur. The Lullubi rather used a unit of their own to detail trading, a strong indication they functioned independently. The mighty Akkadians overshadowed the Lullubi, however. But as the leading archaeologist on the team, Aline Tenu, said in a statement, “the city of Kunara provides new elements regarding a hitherto unknown people that has remained at the periphery of Mesopotamian studies.”Akkadian Empire soldiers on the Victory Stele of Naram-Sin, circa 2250 BC. Photo by Rama CC BY-SA 2.0 frThe excavations of the Kunara site are widening the perspectives. The occupants of the lost city likely maintained strong economic relationships with regions remote to them — to the north toward Anatolia and beyond to the Caucasus region, and to the east where the ancient Iranians extended.A variety of artifacts such as stone tools carved from obsidian, carnelian, and basalt suggest the possibility the city indeed connected to those far-flung territories.“The city must have even been fairly prosperous, as rare stones such as obsidian were used to produce entirely commonplace tools,” said Tenu.Caucasus. Photo by Bourrichon CC BY-SA 4.0That the city belonged to an advanced society is evidenced by bones belonging to different animals including lions and bears. Animals of this type were especially prized at the time, and their remnants found around Kunara may be proof of lavish offerings and royal hunting practices. The remains of goats, sheep, and other livestock additionally implicate a developed farming system.Further analysis of the artifacts collected in the field will hopefully offer more insight about this intriguing and seemingly wealthy city, as well as the political relations it had with the vast empire it neighbored.Read another story from us: Secret Egyptian Palace of Ramesses II Discovered by AccidentMore excavations are set to continue in the area, which until relatively recently has remained closed to scientific research due to the persistent tensions and conflicts in the Middle East.last_img read more

The Worst Century in History to be Alive

first_imgWhat was the worst century to be alive? While the 24-hour news cycle has modern times looking pretty grim, the tough times for many that is currently plaguing the world is nothing new. Centuries have passed with even more cataclysmic events with the 17th staking its claim for worst ever century. 100 years in particular, however, seem to take the cake where misery is concerned. In the ‘50s, Eric Hobsbawm coined the term “The Crisis of the Seventeenth Century.”The word “crisis” seems to be putting it lightly, though, based on the following overview of a mere fraction of the unrest in possibly the worst century in world history to be alive.The Thirty Years War Enveloped EuropeMarauding soldiers by Sebastiaen Vrancx, 1647, Deutsches Historisches Museum BerlinThe Thirty Years War ravaged Central Europe. Religious dispute within the Holy Roman Empire erupted into a multi-country, multi-faith war that resulted in eight million fatalities.The election of the new emperor Ferdinand II and his subsequent enforcement of Roman Catholicism caused unrest throughout the empire. Northern Protestants fought southern Catholics and both parties managed to rope in Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Denmark, Norway, England, the Ottoman Empire, Spain and the Russian Empire – which at the time was experiencing one of the worst famines in its historyThe Ratification of the Treaty of Münster by Gerard ter Borch, 1648In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia was barely beneficial to any party that was involved in the fighting, but at least it brought peace. Aside from vast loss of life, most kingdoms were left bankrupt.… And Caused More WarThe Battle of Rocroi by François Joseph Heim, Palace of Versailles collectionA spin-off of the Thirty Years War took place on the Iberian Peninsula, where France incited the Franco-Spanish War which lasted for 25 years.By the end, France had annexed a bit of land around the Pyrenees, but in 1659 the two countries signed a peace treaty which, just as with the Thirty Years War, didn’t seem to make up for the 300,000 lives lost.… While Others Were Going OnThe Portuguese Restoration WarDuring this time, Spain was fighting on two fronts. The empire was also occupied with the Portuguese Restoration War, or the Acclamation War. For almost 30 years, from 1640 to 1668, the Spanish wanted to prevent Portugal from seceding from the empire.Though fighting wasn’t continuous, the two sides managed to drag allies into the war — when all the European powers weren’t too busy fighting each other elsewhere. In the end, the Portuguese monarchy was recognized as an independent nation.… And Even More Came AboutEpisode of the Fronde at the Faubourg Saint-Antoine by the Walls of the BastilleAfter battling against the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish in the wars already mentioned, France underwent a series of internal conflicts. Civil wars, collectively called the Fronde, broke out from 1648 to 1653.Unrest began with higher taxes and was exacerbated by the king’s attempt to directly control the military who had become used to a certain autonomy during the Thirty Years War.The Civil War was broken down into two periods: the first led by Parliamentarians against the king’s rule, the second led by upset, power-hungry nobles. To sum up the results of the Fronde, Louis XIV reigned as king until his end in 1715.The British Isles Suffered Complete DisarrayPainting by William Allan (1782–1850) of the signing of the National Covenant in Greyfriars Kirkyard, EdinburghTo top it all off, the all-powerful British Isles suffered successive rebellions and civil wars throughout the early 17th century. Without going into exhaustive detail, Scotland endured the Bishops War, which had risen from religious dispute, and eventually kicked off the War of Three Kingdoms.The latter included the Irish Rebellion of 1641, the Irish Confederate Wars, and three English Civil Wars. While the Irish spent 11 years attempting to get rid of English and Protestant rule in their Catholic lands (to no avail), the English succeeded in getting rid of their King, executing Charles I and exiling his son. They established the Commonwealth of England under Oliver Cromwell which only lasted a decade, after which Charles II was restored to the throne.And Then There was the PlagueThe 17th century saw devastating outbreaks of Plague as well. It claimed arond 1.7 million victims in Italy, or about 14% of the population. In 1656, it took the lives of nearly half of Naples’ 300,000 inhabitants. More than 1.25 million fatalities occurred in Spain, hitting Seville the hardest which also lost half of its population.Great Britain also felt its share of Plague pandemonium with the Great Plague of London of 1665-1666. It was the last major outbreak of Plague in the British Isles and claimed over 100,000 people, almost a quarter of London’s population, in only 18 months.A Parallel Thirty Years WarEurope wasn’t the only continent suffering massive losses through large-scale warfare. Across the Mediterranean, in northern Africa, the tribes of what is modern day Mauritania and Western Sahara fought each other from 1644 to 1674.The Sanhadja Berber tribes had to protect their lands from the invading forces of the Maqil Arab who wanted to gain access to Senegal and Mali. Establishing dominance, the Maqil demanded tribute from the Sanhadja in return for protection (which they didn’t actually provide). As a result, war officially broke out in 1673, when the Sanhadja tried to oust the Arab forces.Sanhaja Berber women performing a traditional dance. Photo by Tropenmuseum CC BY-SA 3.0Unfortunately, they were not successful and the Berber tribes were defeated. The Maqil victory encouraged widespread Arab takeover of the northwest of Africa. They would remain the primary power in the region until the French began to colonize the continent.China Overthrew a DynastyMing Dynasty empress’ fengguan (phoenix crown) – traditional ceremonial headgearIn China in 1618, a chieftain from the Aisin Gioro clan authorized a manifesto, The Seven Grievances, against the imperial Ming dynasty. While peasant uprisings were already popping up like wildfire, the Chinese fought insurrectionary political forces. For over 40 years the empire suffered from active rebellion.Eventually, the Ming were overthrown and, in 1636, the Qing dynasty took control. Reasons for the Ming’s downfall included waning relationships between the royalty and the military, as well as natural disasters. The Little Ice Age had devastating effects in Asia, dropping temperatures considerably and causing many disastrous typhoons throughout the revolt.Japan Kept Out of ItLocation of Tokugawa Shogunate. Photo by Maproom CC BY-SA 3.0Though their isolationist policies set the country back in comparison with the rest of the modern world, the Crisis of the Seventeenth Century is one justification that their adoption of Sakoku benefited Japan in the long run.The Tokugawa shogunate began to introduce their closed door policies in 1633, isolating the archipelago from the rest of the world for over 200 years. While they had their own interior problems to combat, like the Shimabara Uprising and the attempted coup d’état during the Keian era, Japan luckily missed out on some more fatalistic world events.Siege of Hara Castle – Shimabara RebellionThe list goes on from there. In the beginning of the century, the Mughal Empire of India underwent several wars of succession; the Ottoman Empire squashed a number of revolts; Russia fought Poland over Lithuania for 13 years, then Sweden for five; the Nine Years War once again encompassed all major European forces; and England saw a second overthrow of its king in the Glorious Revolution.Read another story from us: Laxatives Used on The Lewis & Clark Expedition Help Scientists Reconstruct The JourneyThe century is capped off by the War of Spanish Succession which lasted for 13 years and crippled the Spanish empire indefinitely. Hobsbawm wasn’t understating when he called the 17th century a “crisis.”last_img read more

Shrewsbury and Westborough student leaders intern for State Rep Kane

first_img(l to r) Legislative Director Jessica Beliveau, Sophia Flionis, Serena Desai and State Rep. Hannah KaneBoston – State Representative Hannah Kane (R-Shrewsbury), was pleased to host three local students as interns in her office at the Statehouse this summer. Kane welcomed Shrewsbury natives Sophia Flionis and Serena Desai, as well as longtime Westborough resident Tucker Morin.A 2018 graduate of Shrewsbury High School, Flionis is a rising sophomore in the Honors Program at Fairfield University, pursuing degrees in politics and communications. She is a member of Fairfield University’s equestrian team and actively participates in community service as a yearly volunteer at Camp Sunshine and her local parish.Desai is a rising sophomore at Colby College, double majoring in English and government. Outside of the classroom, she competes for Colby’s Mock Trial Team, serves as Co-President of the Colby College South Asian Society, is a member of the Broadway Musical Revue and participates in a weekly Old English study group.(l to r) Legislative Director Jessica Beliveau, Tucker Morin, and State Rep. Hannah KaneMorin is a rising senior at Dickinson College, majoring in law and policy. A member of Dickinson College’s football team, he also spends time volunteering with the Special Olympics and at Project SHARE, a Central Pennsylvania food bank, in addition to helping facilitate Dickinson’s campus-wide bone marrow registry program, Be the Match.“It is been a true pleasure for me to host Sophia, Serena and Tucker at the Statehouse this summer,” stated Kane. “These young leaders and scholars have been a valuable asset to our office and represented our district incredibly well. I am eager to witness their continued contributions to our community and future successes in their many endeavors. ”Each summer, Kane invites passionate and engaged young leaders of the Eleventh Worcester District to intern on Beacon Hill. Each intern attends the House of Representatives Intern Speaker Series, which provides interns with unique exposure to state government’s processes and a diverse array of stakeholders. Kane’s interns conduct policy research and analysis of legislation, as well as attend numerous briefings on policy issues and current events on behalf of the office. In addition, interns monitor news developments and summarize updates on local and regional areas of interest.Summer interns for Kane serve until the conclusion of Session, when summer recess begins. Kane welcomes a limited number of college-aged interns each summer. Those interested in learning more about an internship with her office should call 617-722-2810.last_img read more

VIDEO Micd up Carson Wentz says hell give rookie kicker his game

first_img Advertisement Eagles’ rookie kicker Jake Elliott became an insta-hero in Philly when he nailed a game winning 61-yard field goal to beat the Giants, and he may have also won around $31,000 in the process.The Eagles released a clip of a mic’d up Carson Wentz on the sidelines during the kick, in which he says he’ll give Elliott his game check if he makes the long game winner. Elliott drilled it. Wentz’s game check for the afternoon is around $97,000.So Carson, will that be a check, or direct deposit?Carson Wentz said he’d give Jake Elliott his game check if he hit FG. Carson’s game check is $97,798. pic.twitter.com/hB6KXGjUeD— Darren Rovell (@darrenrovell) September 26, 2017last_img

Colins PostFree Agency NFL Playoff Predictions

first_imgThe NFL free agency period saw another year of growth in popularity and dominating the news cycle, and is now a close second to the Draft as a must follow for football hungry fans.This year, a bunch of NFL teams were ready to shell out big money on high priced veterans during the signing period in hopes of an immediate impact, and today Colin looked at the teams that improved the most and gave his division predictions, accounting for new additions that will impact the standings.Watch Colin run it all down here:last_img

Sorry Raptors Won Because of Injuries

first_imgAlso:-RIP Warriors’ dynasty-NBA about to enter a parity stage-KD leaving Golden State makes no sense-Kawhi too quiet to be the face of the league Sorry, the Raptors won because of injuriesThe Raptors clinched their first title in franchise history with a Game 6 clinching win over the Warriors to complete their fairy tale playoff run. The Raptors are a great story, but Colin still thinks there’s no way they win the title without the avalanche of injuries to the Warriors.With KD going down after playing in one quarter of Game 5, and Klay Thompson going down in Game 6 with a torn ACL, it was injuries that decided the series. It may not be a popular take in Canada, but it’s truth. It’s still a title. Enjoy it. Guests:Chris Broussard, Tom Tolbert, Ric Bucher, and Frank Caliendolast_img read more

Attention Glassholes No More Wearing Your Face Computer to the Movies

first_imgOctober 30, 2014 Problem Solvers with Jason Feifer 2 min read Listen Now Starting today, if you own a pair of Google Glass or other computerized glasses and wear them to the movie theater then you may be more than just a jerk. You’ll officially be a rule-breaker. The Motion Picture Association of America and the National Association of Theatre Owners just updated their joint anti-piracy policy to explicitly include rules for wearables.While both associations “recognize the strong consumer interest in smart phones and wearable ‘intelligent’ devices” moviegoers are expected to power down their wearables with recording capabilities and put them away before the movie starts, the updated policy says.So there we have it, no Glass at the theater. Policy or no policy, wearing your face-computer to the movies probably constitutes as Glasshole behavior, a quality Google itself warns against in the company’s handy Google Glass do’s and don’ts guide.Related: Comic-Con Restricts Usage of Google Glass”Breaking the rules or being rude will not get businesses excited about Glass and will ruin it for other Explorers,” Google helpfully reminds wearers.Of course, the new policy may be an inconvenience to Explorers who have attached prescription lenses to the device. But that serves as another painfully obvious reminder: Don’t make Google Glass your main pair of glasses.Here’s Google on the subject: “Glass was built for short bursts of information and interactions that allow you to quickly get back to doing the other things you love. If you find yourself staring off into the prism for long periods of time you’re probably looking pretty weird to the people around you. So don’t read War and Peace on Glass. Things like that are better done on bigger screens.”Need we say more?Related: The Daily Show Hilariously Slays ‘Glass Holes’ Hear from business owners and CEOs who went through a crippling business problem and came out the other side bigger and stronger. Opinions expressed by Entrepreneur contributors are their own.last_img read more

Google Is Adding FactChecked Medical Info to Search Results

first_img Let’s be honest: the Internet has made slight hypochondriacs of us all. According to Google, one in 20 Google searches are conducted in the quest for health information, which is why the search giant is doubling down on the medical information it presents.Starting this week, whenever you key in an illness-related search on Google, you’ll get a snapshot of medical facts right upfront. For example, if you type in “migraines” or “food allergies” into the search box, now a white box will come up in the top right hand corner of the screen with a description of the ailment, with links to causes, symptoms, tests, treatments, prognosis, prevention and the National Library of Medicine. The info is accompanied by a line cautioning users to “consult a doctor if you have a medical concern.”Related: Cubicles Were Originally Designed to Set Us Free and Now They’re Slowly Killing UsProduct manager Prem Ramaswami explained in a company blog post that the search information was put together by a team of doctors led by Dr. Kapil Parahk, and M.D., MPH and Ph.D who taught at Johns Hopkins and worked with the White House before joining Google, and was fact-checked by medical doctors at the Mayo Clinic and Google. While the new feature is intended to be useful, Ramaswami warned that it isn’t meant to serve as medical advice. “We know that cases can vary in severity from person to person, and that there are bound to be exceptions,”  he wrote in a blog post. “What we present is intended for informational purposes only—and you should always consult a healthcare professional if you have a medical concern. But we hope this can empower you in your health decisions by helping you learn more about common conditions.”Back in October, Google was reportedly piloting a new feature that allowed users who look up health symptoms to video chat with a doctor instantly. The company is also said to be developing an ingestible cancer-detecting pill and contact lenses that monitor blood sugar.Related: 23andMe’s Database of Genetic Information Is Going to Make It Lots of Money February 10, 2015 Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box.center_img 2 min read Register Now »last_img read more

Shuddle the Ridesharing Service for Kiddos and Grandparents Raises 10 Million

first_img Listen Now Problem Solvers with Jason Feifer 2 min read Soccer practice for one kiddo. Band practice for the other. The dentist for you. The physician for your mom, who can’t drive herself.Wednesdays can feel like a finely tuned game of Jenga — which is exactly the appeal of family-focused ridesharing startup Shuddle. The San Francisco-based company, specifically designed to chauffeur children, announced today that it has raised $9.6 million in its Series A round. In total, Shuddle has raised $12 million so far.Related: Busy Parents: Meet Shuddle, the Uber for Kids“Nearly every parent struggles with getting their kid(s) from point A to point B because they often need to be in two places at once. Shuddle solves this problem,” said Steve Schlafman, Principal at RRE Ventures, the VC house that led the deal, in the statement announcing the funding raise.That may be true. But hoisting your children and grandparents into the car of a stranger is a tall ask with a lot of potential pitfalls.To address concerns, Shuddle has specifically tailored insurance for its drivers to be able to carry minors. Also, drivers have to pass a stringent verification and screening process.The startup launched in San Francisco and is currently operating within the Bay area and has 200 female drivers as part of its network. Shuddle CEO Nick Allen was a co-founder of the Uber and Lyft ridesharing competitor Sidecar.Related: Secrets to Being Both an Executive and a Momcenter_img Hear from business owners and CEOs who went through a crippling business problem and came out the other side bigger and stronger. March 18, 2015last_img read more

Soon the Floor in Your House Could Be Your Next Energy Source

first_img This hands-on workshop will give you the tools to authentically connect with an increasingly skeptical online audience. October 25, 2016 2 min read Free Workshop | August 28: Get Better Engagement and Build Trust With Customers Nowcenter_img Enroll Now for Free You know how dragging your feet around on carpeting can create finger-zapping static electricity? Well, thanks to the findings of university researchers, walking around your floor might someday create electricity and help power your house.A team at the University of Wisconsin-Madison says it has developed a technique using wood pulp and chemically treated cellulose nanofibers. Apparently the treated nanofibers produce an electrical charge when they come into contact with untreated fibers.The power of friction! Really.When embedded within flooring, the nanofibers are able to produce electricity that can be harnessed to power lights or charge batteries, the university says. The research team — made up of Xudong Wang, an associate professor of materials science and engineering, and his graduate student Chunhua Yao — recently published their findings in the journal Nano Energy.Related: No Bull! This Robot Could Put Cowboys Out of Work.Perhaps the best part of their finding is the cost. Wood pulp is an inexpensive waste product of several industries, meaning that flooring that incorporates this new technique could be as affordable as conventional materials, the university says.You might get the biggest bang for your buck by installing flooring like this in high-traffic hallways and public places like malls. “We’ve been working a lot on harvesting energy from human activities. One way is to build something to put on people, and another way is to build something that has constant access to people.” Wang said in an announcement. “The ground is the most-used place.”Related: This Gizmo Literally Lets You See Through WallsWang and his team expect that the affordability of such a product could be appealing to regular Joes like me who might someday soon install flooring systems like this in my house, for about the same price as traditional flooring materials. I say, get your Electric Slide on and power up.last_img read more