Distant quasar spectrum reveals no sign of changes in mass ratio of

first_img © 2015 Phys.org A team of space researchers working with data from the VLT in Chile has found via measuring the spectrum of a distant quasar by analyzing absorption lines in a galaxy in front of it, that there was no measurable change in the mass ratio of protons and electrons over a span of 12 billion years. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, the team, made up of two members from VU University in the Netherlands, and two members from Swinburne University of Technology in Australia, describe their findings and what it might mean for helping to explain dark energy. Some theories suggest that dark energy, the mysterious force that has the universe continuing to expand, might be a field that evolves over time—if so, that might mean that some of the constants we take for granted, such as gravity, the speed of light, etc., might actually evolve as well. In this new effort, the researchers sought to test that idea by looking to see if the mass of protons or electrons (both of which are considered to be fundamental constants) and the ratio that describes their mass difference, changed over the course of billions of years.To find out if that might be the case, the researchers looked to a distant quasar, one positioned behind a galaxy, relative to us. Quasars are still somewhat mysterious, described as celestial objects that emit a huge amount of energy and light—they look like stars, but some believe they actually hold black holes. The researchers found that molecular hydrogen in the galaxy absorbed some of the light from the quasar allowing them to measure the energy transitions that occurred and thus the mass ratio of protons and electrons. Since the galaxy had been previously dated to 12.4 billion years ago, the light reaching it from the quasar must be even older. Their measurements showed no deviation (with a precision of 10–6) from the current constant, suggesting that the ratio has remained constant for at least 12 billon years. And this, the researchers claim, suggests that if dark energy is evolving, it has not done so over that time span.via physicsworld.com This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. An X-ray image of the quasar PKS 1127-145, located about 10 billion light-years from Earth. Credit: NASA. Citation: Distant quasar spectrum reveals no sign of changes in mass ratio of proton and electron over 12 billion years (2015, February 25) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-02-distant-quasar-spectrum-reveals-mass.htmlcenter_img Journal information: Physical Review Letters Explore further Physical constant is constant even in strong gravitational fields More information: Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 071301 (2015) DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.071301last_img read more

Physicists demonstrate new violations of local realism

first_img Journal information: Scientific Reports When two objects are entangled, a measurement on one object instantly affects the state of the other, even more quickly than light could travel between them. This instantaneous action goes against our intuition that an object should be affected only by its immediate surroundings, a concept known as locality.For years, physicists struggled to definitively answer the question of whether or not entangled states truly violate local realism—that is, do they violate either locality or realism, where realism is simply the assumption that objects exist even when they’re not being observed? Although it was long suspected that at least some entangled states violate local realism due to how they seem to instantly influence each other, it wasn’t until 1991 that physicist Nicolas Gisin at the University of Geneva quantitatively demonstrated that all pure entangled states must violate local realism. This result is now known as Gisin’s theorem.In quantum mechanics, a “pure” entangled state is one that is clearly defined. However, the vast majority of entangled states are “mixed” to some degree, meaning they consist of a combination of multiple types of pure states. Although Gisin’s theorem holds only for pure states, over the years physicists have extended the theorem by showing that some other types of states can also violate local realism. In a new paper to be published in Nature Scientific Reports, Jing-Ling Chen, et al., from institutions in China and Singapore, have demonstrated that all mixed states that obey a certain steering property must violate local realism. This new family of entangled mixed states that violate local realism may lead to a better fundamental understanding of quantum correlations, as well as simplify the implementation of some quantum information protocols.”Our enhanced Gisin’s theorem is the first time that the theorem has been generalized from pure states to mixed ones, and includes the original Gisin’s theorem as a special case,” Chen, a physicist at Nankai University in China and the National University of Singapore, told Phys.org. Quantum test strengthens support for EPR steering More information: Jing-Ling Chen, et al. “Beyond Gisin’s Theorem and its Applications: Violation of Local Realism by Two-Party Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering.” Sci. Rep. 5, 11624; DOI: 10.1038/srep11624. To be published. Also at arXiv:1404.2675 [quant-ph] Citation: Physicists demonstrate new violations of local realism (2015, June 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-06-physicists-violations-local-realism.html By extending Gisin’s theorem from pure states to mixed states that obey a certain property, the results of the new paper could have applications for quantum certificate authorization protocols, like the one shown here. Credit: Chen, et al. ©2015 Nature Scientific Reports Explore further Two distinct conceptsChen explained the problem in more detail:”It has long been well-known, starting from Werner’s seminal 1989 paper ‘Quantum states with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations admitting a hidden-variable model,’ that entanglement and violation of local realism are two distinct concepts. Some entangled quantum states admit a local hidden variable model and hence do not violate local realism. An important question arises. Can we pinpoint a condition that constrains quantum states to those for which entanglement is equivalent to a violation of local realism? A possible condition is purity. Any pure entangled quantum state violates Bell’s inequalities. This is known as Gisin’s theorem. “For a more general case of mixed states, however, researchers have been concerned about a lack of such a condition. The more general condition is of great significance not only from the theoretical viewpoint of the need for a deeper understanding of quantum correlations. It is also important in experiments, and for quantum informational applications. Since a quantum system inevitably interacts with its environment, the quantum states practically always are to some degree ‘mixed.’ In this work, we address this problem and propose to use the concept of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering as a condition to bridge entanglement and violations of local realism.” Three forms of correlationsAs Chen explained, entanglement, steering, and violations of local realism can be thought of as three different forms of quantum correlations that form a hierarchical structure, with violations of local realism being the strongest form. Steering, the intermediate form, takes the correlations of entanglement a step further so that one system can control—or “steer”—the state of its entangled partner. Here, the physicists demonstrated that, if two observers are able to steer each other’s qubits into pure states by making a measurement on their own qubit that spontaneously collapses the state of the other’s qubit, then even if the qubits were originally in mixed states, they must violate local realism. “This proposed condition is more intrinsic, in the sense that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is by definition a form of quantum correlation that is intermediate between just entanglement and a much stronger one: violation of local realism,” Chen explained. “Our result provides an important step forward to solving a long-standing problem of pinpointing a physical condition that automatically implies violation of local realism by an entangled state.”Overall, the findings help establish rigorous criteria for marking the borders between these three highly related yet different concepts.”In this hierarchical structure of entanglement, steering, and violations of local realism, the former contain the latter as a subset,” Chen explained. “[Marking the borders between them] is a nontrivial problem since, in general, it is not easy to reduce a superset [entanglement] to a subset [violations of local realism] by imposing extra constraints, which is just EPR steering in our work.”As the scientists explain, the new family of states that violate local realism could provide a new resource for quantum information tasks by reducing the number of entangled particles needed to perform a task. One example is the Third Man cryptography protocol, also called “secret sharing,” in which a third party can control whether two people are allowed to secretly communicate with each other. Previous versions of this protocol required three entangled qubits, but because the fidelity of three-particle entangled states is currently still below about 90%, it is very error-prone. Using the new states, the protocol can be implemented with just two entangled qubits, which has a fidelity of more than 99% and therefore a much lower error rate.Another potential application is quantum certificate authorization, in which a person sending a confidential message through the internet to another person can ask a third party to verify that person’s identity. One way that the third party might do this is by ensuring that both the sender and the receiver can steer each other’s qubits into pure states. If they can, the entangled states must violate local realism, which ensures a secure protocol. The physicists plan to use the new family of EPR-steerable mixed states to experimentally realize these protocols in the near future. (Phys.org)—Erwin Schrödinger once famously stated that quantum entanglement is “the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics” that distinguishes it from classical theories. Now in a new paper, physicists have demonstrated a new family of entangled states that violates the principle of “local realism”—an intuitive concept that is a standard feature of classical theories, but disturbingly at odds with quantum theory. © 2015 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

Step into the Churchill

first_imgThe Churchill, Jaypee Greens Golf & Spa Resort’s Cigar lounge, was named hence as a tribute to the most popular connoisseur of cigars in history, Winston Churchill. True to its name, the lounge serves its guests a select range of the finest quality of Cuban cigars. These handpicked cigars when combined with our assorted selection of fine liquor exude understated power and unassuming elegance. The menu staples range between the high-end Cubans including Montecristo Grand Edmundo, Hoyo De Monterrey Epicure No. 2, Parthagas Serie D No. 4 and the quintessential Romeo Y Julieta Short Churchill, also the more modest Cubans on the lines of Fonseca KDT Cadettes and Jose L Piedra Nacionales are included. The menu will undergo some interesting changes in October apart from some new additions Cubans will be paired with classic drinks.last_img read more

Need to utilise solar power make the most of it

first_imgDelhi Lieutenant-Governor Najeeb Jung on Friday said that we are blessed with abundant sunlight in this part of the world and solar energy is the cleanest and cheapest source of energy and one should make the most of it. Jung was speaking during the inauguration of an awareness programme on renewable energy with special emphasis on solar energy at Delhi Secretariat which was organised by the Department of Power, Delhi and Solar energy corporation of India jointly.The L-G stressed upon the need for popularising the installation and use of solar energy. He said that the growing consumption of energy has resulted in increased dependence on fossil fuels, coal, oil and gas, which are all finite resources and are available in limited quantities. He said if small initiatives are taken at the grassroot level, the solar mission can become a success.last_img read more

Poetic delight

first_imgIndia Habitat Center’s Amaltas Hall recently witnessed a unique program combining poetry and music Kavi Ek Rang Anek.  Eminent poet Lakshmi Shankar Bajpai rendered his poetry in eleven different formats –  geet, ghazal, doha, haiku, savvaiya, kshanika, mahiya, ghanakshri, triveni, muktak  and free verse.  His poetry dealt  with contemporary subjects and everyday situations relating to life with the common man. The beauty of the language and the sensitivity of the poet’s thoughts won the audience’s hearts. Bajpai spoke of the urgent need to preserve the various forms of poetry which form India’s rich cultural heritage . Some of Bajpai’s ghazals were composed and sung by ghazal singer  Shakeel Ahmed. Ahmed’s compositions were raag based and infused a vibrancy and fresh colour into the ghazals.  Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The audience too joined in and sang the refrain of Khoob naare ucchale gaye, Log baton mein taale gaye. Ahmed proved his virtuosity with the heart wrenchingly beautiful Poora Parivaar, ek kamre mein which brought alive the plight of the urban middle class. Mridula Satish Tandon, president of SAKSHI who organised the show said “It is an urgent need of the times to revive an interest in India’s cultural heritage and to bring it to today’s audience in a setting and form which they can easily understand and relate with.”last_img read more

Fire breaks out at Priya Cinema no casualties

first_imgKolkata: Fire broke out at the first floor of Priya Cinema Hall, one of the premier movie theatres of the city, at around 10:15 pm on Sunday. According to initial reports, the heater of a momo counter has been said to be the cause behind the mishap.Five fire engines rushed to the spot and brought the blaze under control. The owner of the theatre Arijit Dutta, along with four of his family members were rescued from the building. Rescue work is still underway. However, no casualties have been reported as of now. Mayor Sovan Chatterjee visited the spot soon after the incident and surveyed the area and the extent of damage.Preliminary investigation has revealed that the momo counter which caught fire, did not have enough fire extinguishers in supply. A forensic team is likely to visit the spot on Monday morning.last_img read more

Discussed food and spices with PM MODI Chef Sanjeev Kapoor

first_imgCliched as it may seem for chefs to love their spices, for Sanjeev Kapoor, one of the most celebrated ones on television, that was the topic of an ‘interesting’ discussion when he met Prime Minister Narendra Modi and whipped a meal up for him in Abu Dhabi.During Modi’s trip to Abu Dhabi in August, Kapoor was flown in specially to prepare a vegetarian meal for the strictly vegetarian prime minister.“I spent over an hour with the prime minister and we were only talking about food and spices and the treatment through spices. It was interesting to discuss with the PM the correct use of spices and the miracles they can do when used correctly,” Kapoor told reporters when he was capital. Chef Kapoor also eagerly shared an anecdote Modi had related to him. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’“The PM told me the story of someone he knows, who had a heart issue and doctors said nothing could be done to correct it. Then he was advised to empty a capsule and fill it with freshly ground red chilli. He (Modi) said the man never had a problem after that,” said the chef, recalling his hour-long conversation with the prime minister. The right combination of spices are the trick to dish out the best food,” Kapoor said. “For me, when I’m cooking with Indian food, spices are very important as I literally have to breathe them. The use of spices makes Indian food unique,” Kapoor added. He said a combination of cumin, clove, pepper and cardamom are his favourites from his spice-box and, barring cumin, he can even use the other three in his desserts! Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with Netflix“All these spices —cumin, clove, pepper and cardamom are so diverse that they can create magic by changed combinations. One can accentuate pepper, underlay it with cloves, with a hint of cumin and cardamom, it’s like a whole another world,” said Kapoor as his senses came alive while speaking of spices. It is only Indian food that can take as little as two or three spices to as many as 20 in the same dish, unlike any other cuisine in the world, Kapoor added. Through his cookery shows as well, he always tries to bring in relevance to food to suit the times, Kapoor said, adding that it doesn’t mean that he serves the same at his restaurants as is depicted on his TV shows.“For the very reason, that I know how to target my audience and I know what to sell, that all my books sell so well. One needs to know what to write so as to make it sell,” the celebrity chef added.His chain of restaurants, Yellow Chilli, would soon be hitting the Gulf markets in Dubai, Saudi Arabia and other places within the next four months, he added.last_img read more

Mamatas views find resonance in SCs Aadhaar judgement

first_imgKolkata: Welcoming the Supreme Court verdict restricting the use of Aadhaar cards, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee, who is presently in Milan, said: “It is a victory of the people of this country, and we are very happy.”Later, Banerjee tweeted: “From day one we have fought for this. Not linking #Aadhaar to mobile phones, bank accounts and others is a great relief for the common people. My best wishes to all.” “From the first day, I am against linking of Aadhaar with banks and mobile phones. There is information which the state government should preserve. We are not questioning that, but linking of Aadhaar with banks and cell phones cannot be supported as there is every possibility of the information being leaked out,” she said, adding: “The Supreme Court judgment has confirmed today as true what I have been telling all these months.” Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeShe said Trinamool Congress MLA Mohua Moitra had filed a Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court. “We read about bank fraud every day, and money is being withdrawn from ATMs, causing great trouble to the account holders. Today’s judgment will put an end to these,” she said. “If Aadhaar is linked with mobile phones, your call and message records become public. This is uncalled for,” said the Chief Minister. “Because of this I did not link my Aadhaar with my bank account and cell phone and also asked people not to do it,” she added. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedMeanwhile, party spokesperson and Rajya Sabha MP Derek O’Brien said: “Mamata Banerjee had issued an open challenge on Aadhaar. Our stance has been vindicated,” and added: “I am glad the court said we need to take a closer look at data privacy and data protection… the BJP can’t make it (India) into a police state.” In a verdict with far-reaching consequences and described as balanced, the Supreme Court Wednesday upheld the constitutional validity of ‘Aadhaar’ but limited the scope of the controversial biometric identity project by quashing some provisions that made it mandatory for bank accounts, mobile connections or school admissions. Holding there was nothing in the Aadhaar Act that violates right to privacy of an individual, a five-judge constitution bench headed by Chief Justice Dipak Misra in a 4 to 1 verdict also cleared the use of Aadhaar for welfare schemes after a long-drawn legal battle against the government’s ambitious project- the world’s largest biometric ID database. The court, however, held Aadhaar would remain mandatory for the filing of Income Tax(IT) returns and allotment of Permanent Account Number (PAN). It struck down Section 57 of the Aadhaar (Targeted Delivery of Financial and other Subsidies, Benefits and Services) Act, 2016 that permitted private entities like telecom companies or other corporates to avail of the biometric Aadhaar data. Ruling that Aadhaar authentication data cannot be stored for more than six months, the court also directed the government not to give Aadhaar to illegal immigrants. Justice D Y Chandrachud gave a dissenting judgement in which he ruled the Aadhaar Act should not have been passed as Money Bill as it amounts to a fraud on the Constitution and is liable to be struck down.last_img read more

Food hacks to lower fatal heart disease risk

first_imgThe findings showed that both plant-based and seafood-based omega-3s lead to about 10 per cent lower risk of fatal heart attacks. “Our results lend support to the importance of fish and omega-3 consumption as part of a healthy diet,” said Dariush Mozaffarian from Tufts University in Boston, in the US. Fish is the major food source of omega-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Fatty fish such as salmon, trout, anchovies, sardines and herring contain the highest amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, according to the US Department of Agriculture’s National Nutrient Database. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Fishes also  provide specific proteins, vitamin D, selenium and other minerals and elements. Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is the plant-based omega-3 fatty acid found in walnuts, flaxseed oil, and canola oil and some nuts and their oils, said the paper. For the study, a total of 19 studies were involved from 16 countries. 7,973 people developed a first heart attack over time, including 2,781 deaths and 7,157 nonfatal heart attacks. “This new global consortium provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand how blood biomarkers of many different fats and fatty acids relate to diverse health outcomes,” Dariush noted.last_img read more

Wage increment may not give job satisfaction

first_imgLondon: Contrary to the popular believe that people tend to be more satisfied after an increase in their wage, a new study suggests that it may be temporary and not have a persistent effect on job satisfaction. The result indicates that wage increases in small, but regular increments – rather than less frequent but higher increases that add up to an equivalent amount – are the most effective way to motivate employees in the long run.For this study, published in the Journal of Economic Behaviour and Organisation, almost 33,500 observations were analysed; with the majority of individuals indicating a job satisfaction of seven on a zero to 10 scale. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfIn line with expectations, the study found that job satisfaction was positively influenced by wage increases. However, the rise in job satisfaction after a wage increase is only temporary, as the effect almost fades out within four years.According to behavioural-economic theory, this can be explained by the fact that people do not evaluate their income in absolute terms, but rather in relation to their previous income.Furthermore, people adapt to their new wage level over time, so a higher salary becomes new reference point for future comparisons. Also, negative reactions to wage cuts were also temporary, a finding that researchers again explain with reference point adaptations and social comparisons.last_img read more